Forget Rivalries, Pay Attention to the Developers

first_imgTags:#cloud#Cloud Providers Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketcenter_img What do we know about developers? What can we deduce about what they don’t do?We can make the educated guess that open source developers are unfamiliar and not really interested in the “one stack fits all” approach that the enterprise giants still battle to control.I was reminded of this in a post by Michael Cote, recapping his time last week at the Microsoft Management Summit. Microsoft sometimes seems obsessed with VMware. Cote argues that both companies have a different foe:I’d say the real enemy of both of these companies is the vast, un-quantifiable mass of open source developers out there who don’t want allegiance to any vendor – not to mention the public cloud IaaS and PaaS options out there (how exactly “cloud development” plays out with the ages-old lockin/closed source/single vendor stack architectural decisions is incredibly murky at this point). Clearly, with moves like buying WaveMaker, you can see some pitched VMW v. MSFT battles involving Lightswitch and other post-VB RAD development. As I told one Microsoft executive, if VMWare buys into an entirely different, non-Java ecosystem (e.g., Engineyard for Ruby, Zend for PHP, etc.), then it’d be time to doff the foil-hats for the real helmets.The citizen developer is not an enterprise creation. The platform providers understand this and are catering to this developer community in a wholly different manner than the large enterprise vendors. Granted, there is a greater push on the part of the enterprise to reach out to developers. Still, developers are autonomous and prefer the independent nature and the culture that comes with being part of a community that controls how they program.This past week, a new startup called DotCloud, raised $10 million. Yahoo Co-Founder Jerry Yang participated in the funding. DotCloud is a platform that will compete against Windows Azure, Google App Engine and EngineYard.In an interview this week, Solomon Hykes, Co-Founder and CEO of DotCloud talked about the issues that developers face. Often, developers are encumbered by systems administration issues such as monitoring, scaling, backups, redundancy and upgrade management. They are forced to choose one programming language. On DotCloud, the system adminstration work can be offloaded. The developers can choose to use Ruby for its Web-front end and Java on the back-end. That’s different than platforms such as Heroku, which is a Ruby-based and Google App Engine, which caters to people who are trained in Python.Hykes says the target is the enterprise. And that shows something larger than just DotCloud. The demand in this world will be for platforms that gives developers the power to customize.That’s the sea change. Its evidence is in the developer community and the DevOps movement. It’s what makes the latest round of innovation so compelling. It’s not the cloud. It’s the people who are innovating and developing on their own terms, with any stack they decide to choose. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting alex williamslast_img read more

VMware Changes the Game with Launch of Open Platform

first_imgTop Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting VMware is launching an open platform today called Cloud Foundry that provides developers with a choice of framework., app services and the flexibility to run on multiple cloud environments.Developers may launch the platform as a private, public or hybrid cloud environment. It can run inside the enterprise as virtual infrastructure, on a public cloud such as Amazon Web Services EC2 or as a hybrid cloud solution.The future of the cloud is one about the predominance of platforms. We’re seeing that reality emerge with this news from VMware. It also points to the increasing importance in providing developers a way to build apps without the usual hassles that come with getting them launched by the IT department.We have been highlighting this issue in the past few weeks in posts about companies such as SaaSGrid, which offers an internal platform for developers. Developers are increasingly adopting Agile methodologies, which is iterative in its approach. Agile requires updates that would normally take weeks to get approved by IT. Setting up a virtual infrastructure like CloudFoundry provides a secure place where developers can do test and development.Mozy Gets into the GameCloud Foundry will be run by the Mozy team, which is moving from EMC and will be part of VMware. VMware executives explained in an interview yesterday that the Mozy team has the experience of developing a backup service.Support for Frameworks and Application ServicesCloud Foundry also offers a choice of clouds, frameworks and application services. According to a draft blog post by VMware CTO Steve Herrod,the platform supports Spring, Grails, Node.js and Ruby on Rails with work already underway for other frameworks. It will be open to multiple services, provided by VMware or other vendors or communities. alex williams 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts Initially VMware will provide basic services such as a relational database, but the choice will broaden quickly. He writes that other initial choices are MySQL, Redisand MongoDB. RabbitMQ will soon follow.Cloud Foundry will be available as a public cloud service at and as software that can be run according to the developer’s choice.Cloud ChoiceCloud Foundry can be used on public or private clouds. It runs on top ofvSphere and vCloud infrastructure but VMware says it can also run on top of other infrastructure clouds. At its launch today, RightScale is showing how Cloud Foundry can run on top of AWS. Its open architecture means that it can run on infrastructure technologies like Eucalyptus or OpenStack.It also has a software component. Herrod:We’ve even shrunk the cloud down to sit on a developer’s laptop. With the “Micro Cloud”, we have a version of Cloud Foundry that runs in a single virtual machine.This gives allows developers to build and test their applications on their ownmachine, with the confidence that their production environment is symmetrical tothe development environment. The Micro Cloud configuration of Cloud Foundrywill be available later this quarter from is the community open source project for the platform environment The code has been uploaded to GitHub. It is available under the Apache 2 license It will be governed like Spring, which has its roots as an open source project.SummaryCloud Foundry plays on the number of acquisitions that VMware has made in the past few years. Spring has been a jewel for VMware but now the other parts are falling into place. RabbitMQ and Gemstone are just two examples. The open play is a smart one. And the flexibility of the platform is key to its success. Cloud Foundry will without a doubt pose a real challenge to Google App Engine and other platforms such as Heroku and even Windows Azure. But this is a competitive space with new startups such as DotCloud offering a similar flexibility.Is VMware now becoming an open source company? It has the dominance in the virtualization market. Now may be the time it leverages that strength to provide an open environment that gives it leverage across the entire market. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Tags:#cloud#news last_img read more

Cartoon: The Silver Lining

first_img4 Keys to a Kid-Safe App More Noise to Signal. Tags:#Cartoons#web 9 Books That Make Perfect Gifts for Industry Ex… rob cottingham This one’s for the engineers, the programmers, the database administrators, the sysadmins, the networking gurus, and the rest of that army of people that gets deployed when a major outage happens.While the rest of us grouse that we can’t check in at our local haunts, or log on with our Twitter app of choice, or vote a story up or down on Reddit – or even do something a little more directly tied to social or economic productivity – those folks are working brutal hours under intense pressure to get everything back up again.And while we’re firing off #fail hashtags and loudly musing about how we’re seriously considering competitors and alternatives, they’re closing off issues, squashing bugs, rooting out corrupted files or finding that one fried capacitor that brought everything down.Yes, someone or some group of people out there was responsible for the decisions or actions – or lack thereof – that led to the latest outage, and they should be held accountable. But every once in a while, it’s nice to shift the recrimination generators into idle, and thank the people who get us all back up and running again.(And while we’re at it, say a nice word or two to the folks whose web apps are affected by those outages, and who keep fielding the “Why the hell isn’t running?” calls from people who think cloud computing is how the weather service gives such accurate forecasts.) 5 Outdoor Activities for Beating Office Burnout Related Posts 12 Unique Gifts for the Hard-to-Shop-for People…last_img read more

Vapor Profiles Help Predict Whether a Wall Can Dry

first_imgToday’s walls, roofs, and floors are better insulated, tighter, and made with a much greater variety of components than they used to be, making them a lot more susceptible to moisture problems when they get wet. Compared to the old days, today’s walls and ceilings are more complicated and can be very slow to dry.Poorly crafted building codes are blamed for many examples of confusion, and the confusion over vapor retarders and vapor barriers is no exception. To design and build energy efficient and durable building assemblies, following the code is not enough. We need a new approach — such as the vapor profile.What is a vapor profile?A vapor profile is an assessment of the vapor permeabilities of each component in a building assembly (a wall, ceiling, or roof). This assessment determines the assembly’s drying potential and its drying direction. The vapor profile shows whether the building assembly protects itself from getting wet and how it dries when it gets wet.“Moisture profile” might be a better term than “vapor profile,” because winning the moisture battle means keeping track of all phases or expressions of water. But vapor profile ties the term to “vapor retarder” and “vapor barrier,” terms that focus on that one layer and whether that layer restricts wetting by vapor diffusion. Vapor profile is about all layers and is as much about drying as it is about wetting.Four steps to a vapor profileExamining the vapor profile is a 4-step process:1. Determine the vapor permeability of each componentThis can be a lot more difficult than it sounds. Various building product manufacturers are not consistent in the ways they measure and report vapor permeability. Different standardized tests are used for different products. Also, the vapor permeability of many building materials is not constant — it can change as the material’s moisture content rises or falls.Make sure that you get numbers for every material or component in your assembly, and obtain the actual test used and units reported. A good start is the Building Materials Property Table from BSC.2. Identify the least vapor permeable component(s)It’s important to identify the component or components that most restricts the wetting and drying potential of the assembly. To understand the robustness or sensitivity of the assembly to moisture accumulation, it’s important to know how many low-permeance materials there are, and where they are located.I suggest following the vapor retarder class system established by Joe Lstiburek of Building Science Corporation:Class I Vapor Retarder (vapor barrier): less than or equal to 0.1 permsClass II Vapor Retarder: less than or equal to 1 perm and greater than 0.1 permsVapor III Vapor Retarder: greater than 1 perm but less than 10 permsThis classification is based on results from ASTM E-96 A (the dessicant or dry cup method). Any material greater than 10 perms is considered vapor permeable.NOTE: The next two steps are not really sequential; you consider them together because they tell you about how to keep things from getting wet and also about letting them dry when they do get wet.3. Assess the extent and direction of vapor driveYou need to consider the following:a. Outdoor conditions, including temperature and relative humidity. It’s important to know how extreme and sustained the expected temperature differences are (with respect to the building interior). For more information, see Climate Consultant 4.b. Indoor conditions — Interior moisture loads, interior setpoints and the type and extent of space conditioning (active heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification, ventilation).The question you are trying to answer is: Do I need a vapor retarder somewhere in the assembly to restrict the movement of vapor INTO the assembly?4. Assess the moisture storage capacity and drying potential of the assemblyThe next question you are trying to answer is: Do I have at least one way for vapor to GET OUT of the assembly?An assembly with two vapor retarders or barriers on opposite sides of the assembly means that there is little to no drying potential in either direction. That can be a real problem brewing unless you design and detail for extraordinary moisture management protecting this assembly from wetting.Example 1 – an acceptable vapor profileIn this example, we have taken a representative GBA wall construction detail and assigned actual materials for each component of the assembly. [Click to enlarge] This wall can only dry to the outside. It is more risky. Step 1: Assess vapor permeabilitiesHow do you determine the vapor permeability of your building materials?In this example, all of the numbers came from the BSC table mentioned earlier.Note that two numbers are in quotes. In the case of the air space it means that vapor moves so freely in air that it is as vapor permeable as it gets.In the case of wood siding, the quotes indicate an “equivalent” vapor permeability. This means that although the lab test of a piece of wood siding (pine, in this case) may yield a vapor permeability of around 2.5 or so, all the gaps between the installed wood clapboards in a wall assembly permit enough air circulation in between clapboards that the effective permeability is MUCH higher (35).NOTE: If you can’t find the numbers you need in this table, you will have to search the Web or contact the manufacturer and tell them you need this information or you can’t use their product. That should get their attention.Step 2: Identify the least permeable componentAfter you have all the numbers, it is pretty easy to pick the one, or maybe two, most restrictive layers in the wall assembly, in terms of vapor permeability.Note that 1 inch of XPS insulation at 1 perm is NOT vapor impermeable. However, it is the most restrictive, which means that MOST drying will take place to its interior or exterior. Also note that the near vapor impermeability of the oil-based paint is managed or overridden by the air space and the functional or equivalent vapor permeabilty of the wood siding as installed (with lots of little air gaps).Step 3: Assess the vapor drive(s)We don’t know what the interior and exterior temperature/relative humidity regimes for this assembly are; we have not picked a location or interior conditions — but…Step 4: Assess storage and drying capacity…since there is such great drying potential on either side of the XPS, this assembly is well-suited to a wide range of climatic, site, and interior conditions.Example 2 – An unacceptable vapor profileIn this second example, we have another representative GBA wall construction detail and again assigned actual materials for each component of the assembly. [Click to enlarge] This wall can dry in OR out. Step 1: Assess vapor permeabilitiesAgain we have taken vapor permeability numbers from the BSC Building Materials Property Table.Step 2: Identify the least permeable componentWe have two layers that are essentially vapor barriers, stopping all moisture from getting INTO and OUT OF the wall assembly. And the problem is that the two layers encase much of the building assembly.Steps 3 and 4: Assess the vapor drive(s), storage, and drying capacityEven without assessing the vapor drives, this assembly is likely to be a problem in ANY climate or interior conditions. If (or rather when) this assembly gets wet, it has very little drying potential. It would take nearly perfect design and construction details and very little moisture drive to keep this assembly from failing.Let’s look more closely at Step 3 (keeping the assembly from getting wet) and Step 4 (letting it dry when it gets wet). If at all possible, we want to change one of the two restrictive layers to give the assembly more drying potential. But which one?If this building is located in the hot-humid south, where the prevailing vapor drive is from the outside in, it is probably better to keep the foil-faced insulation and lose the vinyl wallpaper.If this building is located in the far north, where the prevailing moisture drive comes during the winter from the inside, we might want to pick a rigid insulation product that is more vapor-permeable.Moisture analysis beyond vapor profilingThe examples look at two extremes; we didn’t really assess the vapor drive and moisture storage capacity of the various assemblies.The vapor profile method is qualitative. It is quite possible that you want a more definitive analysis, because you really don’t know how the assembly will perform in your climate, at your site, with your interior conditions.For a more exacting answer to this question, you have two options: consult with a building scientist who has enough practical experience to review your design and weigh in with an expert opinion; or turn to a more quantitative analytical tool.The tool that many building scientists use is a software program called WUFI (a German acronym based on the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, where the program was first developed). The software allows you to specify your assembly, pick your local climate and interior conditions, and then run a four-year analysis to see how the assembly handles moisture, wetting, and drying.WUFI tends to be a conservative tool (it “fails” assemblies and conditions more often than real-world experience suggests), and so is often more useful in the hands of experienced building scientists than lay folks like builders and architects.A closing noteI am not sure where the term “vapor profile” came from. I learned to use the term during my time at Building Science Corporation when I was trying to document the way in which Dr. Joseph Lstiburek assesses buildings as part of a Building America project.last_img read more

Efforts to Ban Gas Hookups in New Construction Widen

first_imgA campaign to lower carbon emissions by prohibiting fossil fuels connections in new buildings has moved to the East Coast. In mid-November, a town just outside Boston became the first in Massachusetts to ban oil and gas installation in new buildings as citizens there joined a number of California communities that have already enacted similar bylaws. There were only 3 votes against the proposal at a town meeting in Brookline, Massachusetts, The Boston Globe reported, as the community of roughly 58,000 voted to tackle climate change by requiring new homes to run on electricity alone.RELATED ARTICLESCarbon Emissions By the Construction IndustryAnother Look at Embodied CarbonBill to Cut New York City Carbon Emissions: $20 BillionReducing Carbon Emissions From Cars and Trucks Will Be HardEmbodied Carbon Emissions in Buildings The measure, which must still be approved by the state attorney general’s office, was opposed by oil and gas interests, real estate developers, and others. It affects both new construction and major renovations. “Prohibiting Brookline residents from choosing an affordable, reliable, and entirely legal heating fuel like natural gas or bioheat is outrageously unfair,” Stephen Dodge, executive director of the Massachusetts Petroleum Council, a trade association for the gas and oil industry, told the Globe. “If cities and towns can start trying to outlaw utilities licensed by the state Department of Public Utilities from serving willing customers who want to buy energy from them, we’re heading toward regulatory and legal chaos.” The real estate industry fears the measure would increase construction costs for new buildings and make utility expenses higher for homeowners. A court challenge is expected. Berkeley, California, became the first community in the country to take this step with a vote in July. More than a dozen other California communities have since followed suit. Proponents argue that every house and high-rise built today will be in place for decades, and so will the fossil fuel infrastructure unless steps are taken to convert buildings to fuels that are less damaging to the environment. USA Today reports that some 35% of U.S. households have gas stoves. The American Gas Association, a trade group representing more than 200 local gas companies, says an average of one new gas customer is added every minute. The fossil fuel bans that have been approved so far differ in some of the details. In Brookline, the measure allows exemptions for restaurants, medical labs, and other buildings when there are no realistic alternatives to burning fossil fuels, the Globe said. Waivers also could be considered by a new town board. Tamara C. Small, CEO of a trade group for the commercial real estate industry, said in a letter to the Brookline Planning Board that it was important not to hinder construction of new housing, or make it any more expensive for town residents. She also noted the region’s electricity grid relies mainly on natural gas, so the environmental benefits from the ban on new gas and oil hookups in buildings may be a while in coming. Climate chaos ahead without cuts, UN says Brookline’s initiative may seem trivial or disruptive to its critics, but supporters see efforts to phase out the use of fossil fuels as an urgently needed step. And scientists warn that efforts to cut carbon emissions to date have not been nearly enough to prevent catastrophic climate change. In a new report, the UN’s World Meteorological Organization said measurements of several greenhouse gases showed above average emissions in 2018 as CO2 levels reached an all time high. The gap between lower emissions targets adopted by many industrialized countries and what’s actually being dumped into the atmosphere are “glaring and growing,” The Guardian reported. Scientists warn that emissions must be cut by half by 2030 if the global temperature rise is to be limited to 1.5°C, the point beyond which climate change will be disastrous. That now seems unlikely to happen, WMO secretary general Petteri Taalas told the newspaper. “There is no sign of a slowdown, let alone a decline, despite all the commitments under the Paris agreement on climate change,” Taalas said. “We need to increase the level of ambition for the sake of the future welfare of mankind.” He added that the last time Earth had seen a comparable concentration of carbon dioxide was between 3 million and 5 million years ago, when the temperature was 2-3°C warmer and sea levels were between 10 and 20 meters higher. The WMO report published on November 25 said the global average concentration of CO2 was 407.8 parts per million in 2018, an increase from 405.5 ppm the year before. Averages are now 50% higher than they were before the industrial revolution began in the mid 18th century. John Sauven, head of Greenpeace UK, told The Guardian: “The number is the closest thing to a real-world Doomsday Clock, and it’s pushing us ever closer to midnight. Our ability to preserve civilization as we know it, avert the mass extinction of species, and leave a healthy planet to our children depend on us urgently stopping the clock.” -Scott Gibson is a contributing writer at Green Building Advisor and Fine Homebuilding magazine.last_img read more

How Google Is Throwing Sand In Apple’s Face

first_imgRelated Posts What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Guest author Derek Brown is a technology executive and analyst who blogs at One Blind Squirrel.Yesterday at the playground, Google threw a handful of sand in Apple’s eye.With a subtle, yet powerful update to its Gmail for iOS app, links to YouTube, Google Maps and Chrome now go directly to those relevant apps (if installed), instead of the mobile web.In my view, this is an absolutely brilliant backdoor play through which Google can not only neutralize Apple, but also leverage Apple’s tremendous success to its own benefit, by enhancing the experience of Google’s dedicated users, deepening loyalty to Google’s own products, and driving incremental revenue for Google.Perhaps more important, yesterday’s Gmail for iOS update is a textbook example of why Google will emerge victorious (at Apple’s expense) in the battleground of tomorrow, Web services.As discussed in “Welcome to Google’s Playground, Apple,” mobile hardware and core OS functionality have largely reached a near-term point of peak innovation; as a result, the product itself will become effectively transparent to the end user, with attention, instead, shifting to the Web (or, cloud) services/content that those devices allow easy access to on an anywhere, anytime basis.Unfortunately for Apple, this shift substantially diminishes the value of its closed-loop hardware/software core, while simultaneously highlighting the strengths of Google’s business. To this end, almost everything Google has done since inception has focused on anywhere, anytime cloud services that function like utilities – seamlessly, across all devices, across all operating systems, all the time – at low or no incremental cost, in the face of stiff competition.Moreover, Google absolutely prints money, either directly or indirectly, from use of many of these cloud-based services, even if those services are accessed via an Apple device (e.g., Gmail for iOS). Apple, on the other hand, is almost at ground zero.For Apple to compete broadly on the battleground of tomorrow, it must quickly introduce a broad spectrum of high-impact, high-value, mass-consumption Web services that function seamlessly across all vendors, all OSs, and all devices. And, the only way I see it doing so expeditiously and successfully is through acquisition – buying services that have already proven themselves in the hands of consumers at scale.If Apple doesn’t, it risks seeing its precious hardware turned into little more than access devices for Google’s services, even as it continues losing marketshare to Google’s own Android-based hardware devices, which do an even better job of accessing Google’s services.Seems like a slightly less painful lose-lose to me.Lead image courtesy of Northfoto/Shutterstock derek browncenter_img Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Tags:#Apple#Google#iOS The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

Can you really have “idiot-proof” kitchen appliances?

first_imgPeople who struggle with frozen pizza and microwaveable food instructions will be happy to know that Whirlpool unveiled a selection of kitchen appliances able to cook your food without pressing any buttons.Unveiled at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2017 in Las Vegas, the appliances include a double-wall oven for $2,600, a microwave for $1,000, a gas range for $1,800 and an electric range for $1,700. All appliances work with iOS and Android devices.See also: Intel launches modular Compute Card at CES 2017All four appliances connect to Wi-Fi and are able to understand instructions from Whirlpool’s Scan-to-Cook mobile app. All the homeowner needs to do is scan the instructions and send them to the appliance, which will begin cooking at the right temperature and time.Whirlpool already has a few compatible products, including DiGiorno Pizza and Alexia frozen fries, but for the price of each appliance you would expect more.All work with Amazon AlexaAll Whirlpool appliances will receive Amazon Alexa support as well, letting homeowners set the oven to a certain temperature or turn the microwave off without entering the kitchen.Bringing the kitchen online may help the poorest of home cooks out, but we doubt any of them will want to spend more than $1,000 just to make sure they don’t overcook frozen fries. That said, a few Reddit commenters have made the argument that this could be useful for those that typically forget how to cook or when to turn off the oven when inebriated.Whirlpool expects to start selling the appliances in the summer. Related Posts Tags:#Alexa#Amazon#CES2017#Internet of Things#IoT#kitchen#smart home#Whirlpool David Curry Small Business Cybersecurity Threats and How to…center_img Internet of Things Makes it Easier to Steal You… Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Follow the Pucklast_img read more

Your Procurement Strategy Should Be More Than Saving Money

first_imgBrad AndersonEditor In Chief at ReadWrite Tags:#GPO#group purchasing organization#procurement#procurement strategy#supplier#supply chain#vendor How OKR’s Completely Transformed Our Culture Brad is the editor overseeing contributed content at He previously worked as an editor at PayPal and Crunchbase. You can reach him at brad at Related Posts Will Development Eventually Make Itself Obsolete? When you’re shopping for a new car, what do you look for? Durability? In-dash navigation? The newest safety features? Chances are high that you don’t even ask if the vehicle runs. Why not? Because while it’s the single most important quality in a car, it’s also a basic expectation. Even if a car had all the other bells and whistles, you wouldn’t consider it if the engine wasn’t working. Think of your company’s procurement strategy the same way: Although saving money is important, it’s also the table stakes. What about gaining access to high-quality suppliers, reducing risk, and saving time? It’s those “features” that should be the true focus of your procurement strategy. Build Your Best Procurement StrategyProcurement requires you to balance existing supplier relationships with supply chain risks and fluctuating pricing with time expenditures. Compare direct sourcing options with indirect channels like group purchasing organizations, which leverage buying power to obtain bulk discounts from suppliers. To develop a procurement strategy that goes beyond saving money, GPO UNA suggests asking yourself:“Am I set on certain suppliers?”This question strikes at the heart of why price shouldn’t be the only consideration in your procurement strategy. A CapitalOne study published this past January showed that product quality, at 40%, is the top reason consumers stick with certain brands; just 12% of respondents pointed to price. If a certain vendor’s product really is better, it may be worth paying a premium. With that said, consider what you sacrifice by insisting on a certain brand. If that company goes under, you may be temporarily unable to get a key product to your warehouse. Even if you never need to find an alternate supplier, there’s another drawback to a brand-loyalty-above-all procurement strategy: You have to negotiate and manage every contract. GPOs handle the research, price negotiation, relationship-building, and communication, but they may not have the specific supplier you want in their portfolio. If not, ask yourself whether sticking with that brand is worth the extra legwork. “How much leverage does my company have?”Speaking of contract negotiation, this second procurement strategy question centers around price and access: Do you have enough buying power? Will top suppliers even work with a company of your size, and if so, will they offer you fair terms?Consider what happened when Whole Foods decided to tweak its own procurement strategy: The upscale grocery chain effectively shut out small- and medium-sized businesses with requirements they couldn’t meet for product demonstrations and fees they couldn’t pay for shelf space. What if you don’t have the leverage you need to include national brands in your procurement strategy? Either look elsewhere or partner with other buyers to make your purchase worth the supplier’s while. Small- to mid-sized companies can do so by joining a GPO; larger firms can make internal arrangements. For example, one aircraft manufacturer whose business units were independently purchasing components from a major supplier consolidated and threatened to cut off its orders unless the vendor acquiesced to its pricing and delivery demands.“How much time am I willing to spend?”As your company grows, the sheer scale of your supplier relationships will make procurement more time-consuming. Consumer packaged goods group Procter & Gamble has more than 75,000 suppliers; Walmart has at least 100,000. Managing that many contracts takes dozens, if not hundreds, of employees’ time. The problem with a complex procurement web isn’t just that it takes a small army to negotiate, either. After a scandal in which horse meat was discovered in European consumers’ “beef” instant meals, one food producer admitted to having 1,000 vendors for a single lasagna line. With so many suppliers, he simply didn’t have the time to vet each one for quality or safety. GPOs can save companies between 20% and 80% on common supplies, but their greatest value might be the time they save. GPOs free procurement teams from administrative tasks, letting them focus on bolstering critical supplier relationships.Buying a car is complex, but it’s far simpler than managing a company’s purchasing activities. Whether you decide to go it alone, do it indirectly through a partner, or take a hybrid approach, remember that price is only one piece of a strong procurement strategy. Tips for Selling Smart Supply Chain Solutions End-of-Life Software: Keep it, Update it, or Fi…last_img read more

Why Customer-Centric Companies Are Leveraging Performance Video for Unprecedented Growth

first_imgTrends Driving the Loyalty Marketing Industry Brad AndersonEditor In Chief at ReadWrite AI is Not the Holy Grail of Sales, at Least Not… Related Posts The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videos Video may be moving away from broadcast television, but make no mistake: On social media platforms, visual content like performance video is more powerful than ever. Between 2016 and late last year, the number of American adults who tuned into traditional television dropped by 22%, according to Nielsen C3 data. Between 2016 and 2017 alone, views of branded video content grew by 99% on YouTube and a whopping 258% on Facebook. Unlike broadcast television, social platforms let brands segment their video content. Although some brand marketers are still posting one-size-fits-all brand videos, performance video producers use personalization to reach even more consumers with more relevant messaging. An Epsilon survey found that 80% of consumers aged 18 to 64 prefer to purchase from brands that offer personalized experiences. That means performance video offers growth opportunities marketers can’t afford to pass up.Performance Video’s PerksMost brand videos raise awareness of a company or product among a broad audience. Performance videos, however, are made to sell. Rather than focus on likes or shares, performance video producers are concerned with cost per acquisition. Performance video is a cost-effective way to acquire customers because it’s:1. Tailored to audience groups. Why would a company like ThirdLove create thousands of Facebook videos to promote its line of women’s underwear? After discovering Facebook photo ads reduced its customer acquisition cost, the startup decided to experiment with performance video. In a single month, ThirdLove’s video campaign dropped its user acquisition cost by another 25% and its cost per click by 20%.The reason ThirdLove’s video ads fared even better than its photo-based ones: Video offers more opportunities for customization. Instead of simply showing a model against a static background, videos make it easy to demonstrate relevance. Shoppers, for instance, might gravitate toward content showing women avoiding uncomfortable bra problems by ditching Victoria’s Secret bras. A video showing a woman with asymmetry finding a bra that fits comfortably may resonate with women in the same situation. 2. Focused on conversions.How did ThirdLove know its performance videos were more customer-centric than past campaigns? “Customer centrism” can’t be quantified directly, but viewers don’t engage with content that isn’t relevant to them. That’s why performance video firms focus on conversions: Content that motivates a customer to take a desired action is clearly valuable.When HP wanted to promote sales of its Sprocket pocket printer, it used conversion rate to determine the video length, format, and messaging its viewers preferred. The tech firm found that 15-second clips work best to spur sales. Its primary target audience — Millennials — responds particularly well to six-second ones, however.3. Contextually relevant.One reason Facebook developed its Suggested Videos stream in 2015, TubeScience CEO Moshe Mosbacher suggested, was to compete with YouTube’s contextually relevant video ad placements. Since 2015, the video landscape has evolved dramatically. TubeScience, a pay-for-performance video company, has become a pioneer in the space; it produces thousands of conversion-optimized video ads each week for Facebook, Instagram, Audience Network, Marketplace, and Instagram Stories. Its performance secrets? Context relevance and user-centricity. Each TubeScience video is customized for a distinct persona. Each also leverages Facebook’s AI-powered ad system to show videos to the right people in the right context to maximize their likelihood of converting. That customer-centric video strategy seems to be working. Insiders report TubeScience videos now represent more than 5% of paid views on the Facebook platform in North America, and its clients include many of the largest marketers online.  The lesson for marketers extends beyond video or, frankly, any other medium: There’s no substitute for relevance. Expert directors, special effects, and masterful plots won’t make a difference if the content isn’t tailored to the viewer. Before rolling the cameras, performance video companies turn to data to determine what will resonate with different groups. No wonder growth-focused marketers are giving it a red-carpet welcome.  Tags:#advertising#Customer acquisition#customer centricity#customer-oriented marketing#marketing#performance video#sales#sales conversion#Video Ads Digital Marketing Jobs in the Government Sector Brad is the editor overseeing contributed content at He previously worked as an editor at PayPal and Crunchbase. You can reach him at brad at last_img read more

No words needed–moment of silence

first_imgI struggle each year to find words to articulate the awe and heartfelt appreciation to those who sacrificed self, to the families of fallen service members, and to past and current military families who continue to adept and stay resilient. There have never been the words to adequately describe the sacrifice made or the emotion of gratitude for the selfless service.All of us though can take a moment of silence to honor those who have fallen.Wherever you are on Monday, May 27 At 3 PM (local time), please stop, and in your own way, have a moment of silence with thought or prayer for those who have fallen and other sacrifices made by veterans, service members, and their families. This post was written by Anne Adrian, Social Media Strategist with the Military Families Learning Network.last_img read more

Financial Planning Tips for Women

first_imgBy Barbara O’Neill, Ph.D., CFP®, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, oneill@aesop.rutgers.eduWomen face unique financial differences from men related to longevity, career differences, and family responsibilities. They are also less likely to remarry and more likely to live alone in later life. Half of women in their mid-50s today will live to be age 90.The American Savings Education Council (ASEC) recently held a program that focused on special considerations that women face in achieving financial security in later life. A key point was that the decisions that women make in their younger years will greatly affect their standard of life later. One speaker advised “Make a positive difference in your financial life because you will be the one that is stuck with it.” Return to article. Long DescriptionBelow are ten tips from the ASEC program speakers to share with female service members:Figure Out How Much Retirement Will Cost– Use a simple planning tool such as the ASEC Ballpark Estimate calculator to figure out how much money you will need and how much you need to save annually to reach this goal. The Ballpark Estimate is available as both a downloadable worksheet and an online calculator.Get Legal Matters and Papers in Order– Draft key legal documents including a will, living will, and durable power of attorney and review these documents periodically as life events and changes in wealth levels occur.Examine Social Security Options– Review your projected Social Security benefit by setting up an online account at Carefully review benefit amounts available at ages 62, full retirement age, and 70 and weigh this data against personal factors (e.g., health status and financial need).Avoid Giving Too Much Money to Adult Children– Set a cap on interfamily transfers to avoid diverting potential retirement savings for the living expenses of adult children (e.g., loan payments and cell phone bills).Avoid Quitting a Job for Care-Giving– Keep income and grow future retirement savings by staying on the job. To balance work and family, explore options such as flexible work hours, telework, and adult day care.Review Beneficiary Designations– Check the beneficiary designations on employer retirement savings plans and insurance policies and revise them as needed (e.g., following a death or divorce).Save Early and Often– Establish an emergency savings account. At the same time, start funding an employer-sponsored retirement plan and/or an individual retirement account (IRA). Both savings goals (an emergency fund and retirement savings) are very important so it is fine to multi-task them to maximize compound interest.Learn the Rules– Study the rules of the systems that you plan to rely on for income in later life (e.g., Social Security, Medicare, a pension, and tax-deferred employer savings plan).Take Advantage of Available Savings Supports– Try to earn the maximum match available through an employer retirement savings plan. Another support for savings is financial education programs available at worksites and through Cooperative Extension.Consider Annuitizing Some Retirement Savings– Purchase an annuity to avoid running out of money. Along with Social Security, an annuity will make monthly lifetime payments. Look for an annuity with low expenses.last_img read more

Power Tip: Watermark Your Video Editing Work

first_imgProtect your work!  Watermarking your video projects can prevent them being shared before final delivery and payment.  In this post we show you how to create a quick watermark in Premiere Pro.Watermarking your video editing projects can save you headaches and complication!  Whenever someone takes your work and releases it before it’s ready it can cost you money and your reputation.  You can also avoid clients dragging out payment.  Using a watermark is standard protocol for still photographers but can also be very useful to video pros.  Let’s learn why and how to create video watermarks in Adobe Premiere Pro.Why You Should Watermark Your VideoThere are several bad scenarios that can be avoided by applying a simple watermark to your video during the approval process.Scenario one, theft.  Let’s say you have a client that has hired you to edit or produce and edit a video.  The process starts with agreed milestones and reviews and stage payments.  You work through the post-production process and provide a video for review that is a few steps away from the final version.  It’s possible that the client can review this rough cut video and decide this is all they need done.  However, you intended to do more because it doesn’t come up to your standards and you wouldn’t be happy to release it in its present state.Example of video watermarkThe customer doesn’t have the same standards as you and they can see this as a way to avoid paying or delaying payment because they have all they need for now.  Suddenly, paying you has fallen to the bottom of a very big pile of other things to do.The end result? A second rate production is released with your name attached to it and payment because a really stressful and painful process.However, if you had watermarked your production so they wouldn’t be able to release it, then you could make sure they pay the final payment before you release the final version without watermark.Watermarking is also one way to quickly determine approvals vs final versions when reviewing versions of past video editing projects.Watermarking in Premiere ProWhat you actually put on in your video watermark is completely up to you and may be more based on your client or the complexity of the project than anything else. The key is just making sure you have sufficient watermaking to ensure that the client can’t use it until you have removed it!So how do you create a watermark in Premiere Pro? It’s as simple as creating a title!Go to Title > New Title > Default Still or use the shortcut  CNTL + T (PC) or CMD + T (Mac).  You can also select it from the list that comes up when you click on the ‘New Items’ icon at the bottom of the project panel.Name it ‘Watermark Version …’ and then create a title that says what you need it to say!Next, add that title to a new video layer at the top of your layers. If there isn’t a track free, simply drag the title to the dark grey area at the top and let go and Premiere Pro will create a new layer for you.Creating a New Video TrackNext, trim it out to fit the whole length of your timeline.Trimming the Title Out to the Length of your TimelineLastly, if you chose to create your title with white text, select the title, go to the ‘Effects Controls’ panel, un-twirl ‘Opacity’ and from the ‘Blend Mode’ drop down select a blend mode like ‘Soft Light’. If the effect is still too strong, just turn the opacity value down until it is visible but not too much of a distraction.Blend ModesRender out your sample, rough cut, or preview version and keep the watermark layer in the Premiere Pro project timeline until the client has paid!One last thought: You may want to create a watermark as a small bug on the corner of the frame or along one edge of the video.  This is ok for a more subtle effect (and is less distracting), but do realize that it can easily be cut away if the client has any kind of tech know-how!Your work is your livelihood.  Ensure that clients pay and protect your reputation by insuring that only a final version of any project can be posted and shared!last_img read more

Adobe Max Roundup: The Creative Cloud Continues to Grow

first_imgAdobe Max reveals, yet again, that Adobe’s Creative Cloud is the across-the-board digital resource for video and film creatives. Here’s everything coming to the Cloud in 2017.Top image from Adobe Max via Annie St. CyrAdobe Max is becoming the go-to mega-conference for the company’s growing army of digital creatives. Hosting over ten-thousand digital designers, photographers, videographers, editors, and all manner of multi-hat wearing creatives in San Diego, Adobe Max quite literally jam-packed a convention center full of all things Adobe. Guest speakers Jordan Peele and Quentin Tarantino highlighted presentations by Adobe’s program designers that previewed a host of updates and new features for the next version of the Creative Cloud.For those who haven’t joined the flock, Adobe’s current version of its Creative Cloud (Adobe CC 2017) is a monthly-subscription-based “cloud” service that offers different design-based programs in its suite. The full Cloud includes everything from mainstays like Photoshop, InDesign, and Premiere Pro to more advanced programs like After Effects, Illustrator, and Dreamweaver. There are also hybrid, crossover, and ancillary programs (Bridge, Media Encoder, and the new Behance social platform) that tie everything together.For those in the film and video production industry, the Creative Cloud has become the most popular service for across-the-board editing needs. The Cloud has changed how we work by crossing between programs like Premiere Pro and After Effects with assets and renders in Photoshop, Illustrator, and Media Encoder. If Adobe Max showed us anything, it’s that the Cloud is expanding to further engulf all of our video editing needs. Here’s everything you may have missed.Team ProjectsCurrently in beta, CC 2017 will include Team Builder in Premiere Pro, After Effects, and Prelude as a way to encourage real-time sharing and collaboration between multiple creatives through the Cloud and across the world. At its heart, Team Builder is designed to help those with fragmented offices and scattered assets. Its version controls and conflict resolution screens allow for seamless sharing of sequences and compositions that truly streamlines team editing.Social Publishing PanelAlso currently in beta, Adobe’s Social Publishing Panel promises to optimize how social creators publish and maintain their online video content and communities. You can read our full write-up on the program here, but the big take away is the direct workflow that allows for direct publishing and monitoring from within the Cloud. Additional capabilities include:Cross-platform social publishing Strategic recommendations for peak performanceKeyword presetsCross-platform performance trackingRendition managementCustom thumbnailContent schedulingNew 3D Rendering Engine in After Effects CCFor those interested in working in 3D, After Effects CC’s new 3D rendering engine is now natively included and fully integrated in the program. MAXON’s Cinerender technology drastically improves 3D CPU rendering to allow more edibility in 3D elements, including extended text and Shape Layers without leaving After Effects.Real-time Playback of Source Footage for VFX and Motion GraphicsIn conjunction with the updated 3D rendering engine, After Effects has also upped its game in VFX and motion graphics by updating its video preview architecture to play raw footage in real time. You no longer need to cache before previewing footage thanks to new GPU-accelerated effects. Faster rendering in compositions means enhancements for Dynamic Linking between Premiere Pro and After Effects and speeding up your overall workflow on projects.Destination Publishing to BehanceAdobe continues to push its online creative community Behance as its go-between for creators and their social media communities. With the new version, destination publishing will add to existing capabilities to render and share your videos directly to YouTube, Facebook and Twitter (sadly, no Vimeo yet) with rich metadata directly from Premiere Pro (and Media Encoder).Other Updates and New Features to Creative CloudWithout a doubt, Adobe’s Creative Cloud is growing and expanding its empire at full speed. The cloud-based multi-service suite is adapting perfectly with the market as more and more creative individuals are asked to work cross-platform in today’s digital landscape. The totality of the updates is far too great to contain in this article, but you can check out the digital video updates below or the full roundup of updates for the Creative Cloud from Adobe Max on their blog here.Refined Lumetri Color ToolsImprovements to Virtual RealityFaster and Easier Puppet AnimationLive Text TemplatesTypekit SyncProductivity Gains with Adobe StockBetter Captions and SubtitlesNew and Improved Audio EffectsBroad File Format Support What updates or new Creative Cloud features are you most excited about? Let us know in the comments.last_img read more

Add a Text Message Chat to Live-Action Footage in After Effects

first_imgLearn how to design, animate, and composite a text message conversation with live-action footage in After Effects.Fifteen years ago, you would not see text messages on television and movie screens because they were not a primary form of communication. However, that’s not the case today. As technology advances and integrates further into our society, filmmakers gain new elements to use in their stories. With these new technological elements, the task of “how to incorporate them correctly in live-action footage” begins.In this After Effects tutorial, take a closer look at how to create a text message chat and composite it with your footage. Learn how to design the text bubbles, realistically animate each text message, and correctly composite your text messages over footage.Best Type of Footage to Composite Text Messages WithIf you are going to composite your text message chat with footage, there are a few things to keep in mind before you shoot.If you want your messages to stand out from the background, think about the color palette of your text message bubbles and light your footage accordingly.Have your talent act and react in a timely manner as he or she sends and receives each message.If you are in a low-light situation, don’t forget to make the light from the screen stand out.Be sure to get a static shot of your scene in case the motion shots don’t composite well with your text messages.Make it clear that your character is using the phone, or the result will be awkward.If you want to sell the text message effect even further, add sound effects. Be sure to check out our tutorial on creating a text message chat to see how to make your scene come to life in After Effects. Have fun and good luck!For those who just want to experiment with some text message bubbles, you can also download the free Messenger After Effects template from our friends at RocketStock. Do you know creative ways to integrate text messages in your projects? Let us know in the comments.last_img read more

Why Cinema Lenses Will Improve Your Next Film Project

first_imgStill lenses can be great pieces of filmmaking equipment. But are they preventing you from making the best film possible?Cover image via TB studio.Simply put, still photography lenses produce beautiful, cinematic imagery. We’ve all seen still lenses produce successful indie films (like Blue Ruin). So why bother spending the extra money on cinema lenses? Let’s take a look at why not using cinema lenses may be preventing you from making your best film.Image via REDPIXEL.PL.Better Optics Cinema lenses are built with a strict degree of precision in their optics. Consider, for example, the Canon CN-E line of lenses and Canon photographic lenses. If you did a side-by-side comparison, you would quickly note that a Canon 50mm 1.2 is less sharp than a Canon CN-E 50mm, both at their most wide-open apertures.You can see a great example of this kind of comparison in this LensProToGo evaluation of the Canon CN-E 70-200 vs. the Canon L 70-200 IS. You can quickly see that the CN-E offers a much sharper image with a higher resolution of details. While subtle, these small differences can elevate your film beyond the potential of still lenses. Better MarkingsThe first things you’ll notice when handling a cinema lens for the first time is the markings. A cinema lens offers vast amounts of data right on the barrel of the lens — for example, your aperture and focus marks are right before your eyes. This information is not something you always get with still lenses. Precise focus marks on your lenses will help you get pinpoint focus throughout your shoot.Image via Zeiss.Cinema lenses also typically feature a 270-300-degree barrel rotation, giving you more real estate on the barrel of the lens to find the perfect focus mark. A lot of still lenses don’t have this feature. Zeiss’s recent line of Milvus and Otus lenses have begun to feature longer barrel rotations to improve focus with the lens. However, these lenses don’t have the focus marks completely around the barrel of the lens. For that reason, I still find proper cinema lenses to be more useful.In short, cinema lenses have become much more accessible than when the DSLR revolution began in 2010. Now, cinema lenses are more affordable and available than ever before. If you have a big shoot coming up, or if you’re going to start on your feature film, definitely consider a set of cinema lenses. They will improve your workflow and help you make a much better film.Looking for more info on lenses? Check out these articles.A Look at the ARRI/Zeiss Master and Ultra Prime LensesShould You Use Vintage Lenses on Your Next Project?Hot Dog! You Can Now Make AR Lenses for Snapchat in Lens StudioGear Review: the Leica Summicron-C Series of LensesGear Tip: How to Clean your Lenses Like a Professionallast_img read more

Maharashtra releases Koyna water to crisis-hit Karnataka

first_imgPune: The Maharashtra government on Sunday released water from the Koyna dam in Satara district to alleviate the water crisis in Karnataka. Around 0.5 TMC water will be released over a 10-day period, authorities have said. Water level in the Kaveri river basin has plummeted due to the soaring temperature.This is the second such discharge from the Koyna reservoir to Karnataka. Last month, 2.5 TMC water was released from the reservoir following a high-level meeting between officials of the neighbouring States.This cumulative discharge of 3 TMC follows a direct appeal on part of Karnataka Water Resources Minister M. B. Patil to provide relief to Belagavi, Bagalkot and Vijaypura districts. In return, Karnataka will release water from the Almatti dam to cater to the needs of Solapur district and others parts in Maharashtra facing water shortage.Late last month, Maharashtra Water Resources Minister Girish Mahajan had said nine of the 12 dams in Karnataka barely had 20% of their water stock. “The available live storage in the reservoirs has touched an all-time low,” Mr. Mahajan had said, adding that he had ordered the discharge from Koyna dam to bring immediate relief to farmers in Karnataka.With a storage capacity of 105 TMC, the Koyna reservoir is one of the largest dams in the State. It houses the massive Koyna hydropower generation plant.Three consecutive years of drought have aggravated the agrarian crisis in Karnataka, especially in the north.last_img read more

Farmers continue stir, prices soar

first_imgSmall retailers and consumers across Maharashtra were harried as the farmers’ agitation dragged into the sixth day on Tuesday, sending prices of vegetables soaring even as Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis announced that farm loans would be waived by October end.The prolonged agitation, which retained its intensity in Nashik and Ahmednagar, is hitting the ordinary consumers in the pocket as prices of vegetables have continued to skyrocket.In fact, the protest has put a severe strain on Maharashtra’s rural economy in general, with sources assessing a ₹100 crore loss in Nashik district alone where 17 wholesale markets remained completely shut for the sixth consecutive day.Tomatoes soared from ₹10 a kilo to an incredible ₹60 a kilo, so did okra (lady’s finger), which rose from ₹15 a kilo to ₹50 a kilo . Leafy vegetables and potatoes witnessed a fourfold increase in their prices, said retailers in Pune.The Pune APMC in Gultekdi saw only 60% of the normal supply of vegetables on Tuesday morning.Milk procurement, while stabilising in urban pockets, remained lukewarm in the rural areas of Nashik and Ahmednagar, the hotbeds of the agitation, especially given several incidents of deliberate large-scale milk spillage witnessed during the protest.The agitation, backed by a number of political entities like the Shiv Sena, Raju Shetti’s Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana and the Sambhaji Brigade, witnessed activists of these parties ‘locking-out’ government buildings in a symbolic gesture of protest on Tuesday.last_img read more

Farmer found hanging from tree in Rajasthan

first_imgThe body of a 30-year-old farmer was found hanging from a tree in a forest under Nahargarh police station area of the Baran district on Wednesday morning.The deceased farmer had gone missing since Monday evening. The body of Sanjeev Meena, a resident of Sakrawada village was found hanging from a tree in the forest, said SHO, Nahargarh police station, Mukesh Meena.The farmer is suspected to have committed suicide on Tuesday as the body is about one-and-half-day old, the SHO said.The reason behind the extreme step is yet to be ascertained as no suicide note was recovered, he said. The family members of the deceased claimed that he had ended his life due to heavy debt, but police officials were not immediately inclined to accept it. The farmer owned about 12-15 bighas of land and had a good yield, the SHO said adding that the deceased did not seem to be under debt. However, an investigation into the matter was under way. The deceased was reportedly suffering from depression after his mother and 22-year-old brother died in the last few years, the SHO added.last_img read more

We don’t support Gorkhaland: BJP

first_imgArmy denies link with ‘soldiers’ in video over Gorkhaland  Brewing discontent“The GTA was set up to protect the culture of the gorkhas. But the State government neither gave administrative nor financial powers to the GTA, resulting in severe discontent among the gorkhas. Hence, they started the agitation,” said Mr. Vijayvargiya. His comments came at a time when the ruling Trinamool Congress leadership has accused the BJP of tacitly backing the movement.TMC secretary general Partha Chatterjee had earlier accused BJP MP from Darjeeling S.S. Ahluwalia of making remarks which incited unrest in the hills. Earlier this week, BJP State president Dilip Ghosh said his party “does not support such demands based on language or community”. For the first time since violence erupted in Darjeeling hills over the Gorkhaland issue, the BJP has made it clear that it does not support the demand for the State of Gorkhaland.Speaking to journalists on Sunday, BJP national general secretary Kailash Vijayvargiya said “we are not supporters of Gorkhaland.” He also alleged that Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee was responsible for the unrest in Darjeeling as the West Bengal government had not abided by the stipulations under which the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) was set up.Also Readlast_img read more